When the sun explodes, will some of the planets in the Solar System survive and become rogue planets?

  • Say if a large enough star, that has a number of planets, were to explode in a supernova:

    1. Would any of the planets survive?

    2. Would they become rogue planets?

    If say our Sun has enough mass to go Supernova then all the planets will be destroyed. But then the current planets(solar system) would have looked different with a large Sun in the middle.

    My point is not of the order of planets of how the planets are currently positioned. You _say_ that all the planets would be destroyed. _Do you_ have any scientific evidence to back up _your_ claim?

    after supernova it may result in stellar black hole which will start pulling from all the planets and mass left over. Giving rise to GRB.

    I believe you haven't read my question correctly. I'm simply asking if the planets will survive the blast and become rogue planets. Not interested if it becomes a black hole, white dwarf, etc.

    Edit your question to be not entirely unrealistic and hypothetical. A 1 solar mass star cannot become a supernova, therefore cannot be "an example" and therefore your question *cannot* be answered using any sensible physical arguments. If you were talking about a 10 solar mass star, maybe. But then you have to decide what kind of planetary system you are talking about. If the Earth was at 1 au from such a star, it would not have an orbital period of 1 year and would have a different potential energy within the "solar system".

    @RobJeffries please read the question _correctly_. Quoting exactly from the question: 'Our system...' that's right our system. System mean planets and the star and according to my edit say _if_ the sun was to be _big_ enough... As per to my comments I don't care about orbit periods those whatnots _just_ if they could become rogue stars and my other questions. Simply an example not need to take it so seriously. I honestly hope that I've made this clear enough, assuming you were the down voter. After all the question has been answered.

    You may not care, but it affects the physics of the answer. Our system will not undergo a supernova event. You cannot write an answer that begins "If a 1 solar mass star goes supernova...", because it doesn't. Whether planets become "rogue" planets does depend on what their orbital periods are. Your question is frivolous and unanswerable beyond what is in the accepted answer -i.e. that it can't happen. The actual fate of the solar system is a different question, but often asked (and answered) elsewhere.

    Just to amplify in case you still don't get it. The details of even a hypothetical answer would need to contain: what radius the Sun attained and how much mass it lost during its evolution prior to a supernova; how much mass it lost during the supernova; what luminosity it achieved before and during a supernova; what the supernova ejecta speed was etc. etc.. You would have to tell us what those numbers (and others) are for your made up solar supernova. Further, even if you don't use the Sun, you *still* need to specify the mass of the star and the initial configuration of its planetary system.

  • LocalFluff

    LocalFluff Correct answer

    6 years ago

    The Sun will not become a supernova, it will never explode. A star must have about 8 times more mass than the Sun in order to cause a supernova explosion. When it starts to fuse helium, the Sun will become a red giant and expand out to about Earth's orbit and throw out gas to form a beautiful so called planetary nebula. Mercury, Venus and maybe Earth will be inside of its photosphere when it is at the largest. I don't know if they will evaporate completely inside the thin hot gas of the red giant Sun.

    The remaining planets will keep orbiting the white dwarf remnant, which is not a star (no fusion) but a compact planet sized object. It will shine like a star because of its stored heat. Orbits will change because the Sun will have only 40% of its mass left, the rest having been thrown out to form a nebula, over very long time. Orbits should become larger, and planets maybe will be pushed out a bit by the ejections from the red giant too. Gas planets maybe get their atmospheres a bit stripped off, icy dwarf planets like Ceres and Pluto could melt and evaporate a bit of their mass since the helium burning red giant is hotter than the Sun today. But I'm kind of guessing here, I don't know if those are significant effects.

    I think you should clarify the 40% more mass comment. For a white dwarf, that's true. Our sun will eventually turn into a white dwarf but before that happens it will lose a fair percentage of it's mass in it's final stages. A star probably needs (not sure precisely how much), but might need 2, maybe closer to 3 solar masses to have 1.4 solar masses remain in it's white dwarf stage. And, obviously, for type 2 super-nova, it needs at least 8 solar masses.

    I have reedited my question. My intention is that our system to be only an example. Thanks

    Small point to add - I asked and got clarification. http://astronomy.stackexchange.com/questions/12205/how-massive-does-a-main-sequence-star-need-to-be-to-go-type-1-nova A sun in main sequence needs to be about 8 times more massive than our sun to eventually go Nova. A white dwarf, only 40% more massive but in the main sequence stage, about 8 times. Our sun is much too small.

    @userLTK That's no small point, I've always confused the maximum mass of a WD with the mass of a supernova progenitor. 8 times, that's why they are so rare.

    According to my calculations, if the mass of the sun is reduced to $\frac{1}{2}$ or less, the planets will all have escape velocity (In agreement with the answers here ).

    This is just the well known fact that kinetic energy is half of the potential energy for orbits in inverse square law potentials.

    There is the possibility that the orbital changes during the Sun's mass loss will destabilise the outer solar system sufficiently to trigger planet-planet scattering and possibly the ejection of one or more planets. These kind of dynamically-hot systems have been suggested as the origin of the material that leads to metal-polluted white dwarfs.

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Content dated before 7/24/2021 11:53 AM