Why are perihelion and the shortest day in the northern hemisphere different?
The orbit of Earth is elliptical and the nearest distance to sun is perihelion position. Should it not be the shortest day in the northern hemisphere?
Why should it be any different if you apply the exact same logic to the Southern Hemisphere? North and South aren't related to perihelion/aphelion.
The real question you should be asking is why perihelion and the northern winter solstice are so _close together_, only a couple of weeks apart. And the answer is that it’s just a coincidence.
Imagine if they are the same. Then why are Perihelion and Shortest day in South Hemisphere different?
Clearly, the Illuminati got their math wrong when they were coming up with the Globe Earth story.
The shortest day (in the northern hemisphere) occurs when Earth's axis of rotation is tilted furthest away from the sun. Perihelion occurs when the orbit of Earth takes it nearest to the sun. The events arise from unrelated causes and are therefore also unrelated.
I asked a very similar question 6 months ago: https://astronomy.stackexchange.com/questions/32470/aphelion-and-the-solstice
We have "days" because the Earth is rotating. The shape of the orbit has little effect on the daily cycle of light and dark.
The length of the day is determined by the tilt of Earth to the orbit of the Earth around the sun. When the Northern hemisphere is pointed away from the sun, then the sun is low in the sky and is below the horizon for longer. So the shortest day happens when the Earth is at the point in its orbit when the angle that the Earth's axis makes with the line from the Earth to the Sun is greatest. This is on about the 21 December.
The longest and shortest days of the year occur because of the tilt of the planet, which also controls when the Equinoxes and Solstices occur. The tilt of the planet has absolutely nothing to do with its location in orbit, and it's only pure coincidence that they're so close together. Also, perihelion moves over time (apsidal precession) and in 56,000 years it would occur on the longest day in the Northern Hemisphere. Except for the fact that the Earth's axis will have also precessed (with a period of around 26,000 years) so the shortest day will occur somewhere else on in the Earth's orbit
For the sake of clarity: The equinox does not occur on the minor axis. The solstice does not occur on the major axis. The tilt of the Earth to then orbital plane does not change over the course of the year, and the Earth's rotational axis is no aligned with the major axis of the Earth's orbit.
+1 Indeed. Also, perihelion moves over time (apsidal precession) and in 56,000 years it would occur on the longest day in the Northern Hemisphere. Except for the fact that the Earth's axis will have also precessed (with a period of around 26,000 years) so the shortest day will occur somewhere else on in the Earth's orbit
Let me put up the question differently. Its really not Northern or Southern hemisphere. The question is Should the Equinox and Solstice occur at Minor axis and Major axis since the orbit is Elliptical?
@MohanMone The answer remains exactly the same. The longest and shortest days of the year occur because of the tilt of the planet, which also controls when the Equinoxes and Solstices occur. The tilt of the planet has absolutely nothing to do with its location in orbit, and it's only pure coincidence that they're so close together.
At equinox there is equal day and night. This means the tilt towards sun is ZERO, hence the point should be on Minor axis otherwise any other point on elliptical orbit either North or South pole will be towards the sun-may be extremely small angle-and hence day and night can not be exactly equal. Hence my question- if the equinox is on minor axis then solstice should be on major axis
@MohanMone The piece you are missing is the tilt of the earth is not parallel to the major axis of the elliptical orbit, so the equinoxes/solstices are not lined up with the major/minor axes. There is no "the tilt towards sun is ZERO, hence the point should be on the Minor axis" because there's no reason for it to be.
I feel that this could be easily demonstrated by a nice 3D animation (that exaggerates the eccentricity of the orbit), but it seems like quite a lot of work for just a SE answer. But perhaps such an animation already exists?
It is worth adding that this coincidence is only valid for the current timeframe. The Earth axis changes because of the precession movement but with a period of 26k years. http://hosting.astro.cornell.edu/academics/courses/astro201/earth_precess.htm but @DaveGremlin just did. OOps.
Equinoxes and solstices are determined by the direction of tilt of the planet's daily rotation. The direction of tilt of a planet's rotational axis is essentially random, (mostly) constant, and unrelated to any property of its orbit.
I did not calculate the precise correct position of the sun in the below diagram, but it doesn't need to be precise to illustrate the point. The planet's tilt is toward the upper right of the diagram at all points in the orbit, changing only very slowly in a process called precession that takes many millennia.